Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Business-Related International Event - Essay Example Several governments with nationals aboard the ill-fated plane have informed families and friends of the passengers to prepare for the worst following the disappearance of the plane. The disappearance of the plane and the developing speculation on the same has had myriad economic implications globally as the essay below analyses. Terrorism for example is an international threat to peace and stability. The manifestation of a terrorist attack on the plane as speculation has had in the past few days makes several ChineseÃ¢â¬â¢s and Malaysian cities vulnerable. Such an attack would prove that the securities agencies in Kuala Lumpur do not carry out extensive and effective scrutiny of international passengers (Celia, 2014). Air traffic into such regions is therefore likely to reduce thereby slowing the pace of economic activities in different cities within the eastern bloc. As explained, terrorism is a global threat and in case the speculations are factual then the catastrophe would serve to prove that the governments in the eastern bloc are not doing enough to secure their borders from external terrorist attacks. Security is a major concern to the development of entrepreneurship in any market. Entrepreneurs travel from different destinations with their products and require security in order to grow their businesses. A terrorist attack portrays lack of security in a country thereby increasing the fear most entrepreneurs have in such markets. A claim that more than two hundred passengers aboard the plane had stolen passports provides much insight on the operations at the international airport in Kuala, Lumpur (Sophia, 2014). The lack of effective security coupled with the globalized nature of the disaster is likely to destroy the economic market in the country as foreign investors and tourists will shy away of the market owing to the proven terrorist threats. Plane accidents often make international news owing to the interest that such
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
PPM-PRINCE2 - Essay Example ect Brief Project Name: Date: Release: Draft/Final Author: Owner: Client: Document Number: Purpose: The main purpose of this Project Brief is to provide detailed explanation of the various elements of the implementation of the Customer Relationship Process within Huanghe Technology. Project Definition: Huanghe Technology currently requires a project which can help resolve the issues within the company. Here a Customer Relationship Management project is being proposed to meet the needs of the company. This project aims at integrating three main elements of the business, i.e. the Customer support, Sales Team and Technical Team. Further details of the project are presented below. Project Objectives: The main objectives of the project are as listed below: a) Development of an Enterprise Team to meet the needs of the business clients b) Development of a Core Technical Team to meet the technical needs of both business clients as well as the SOHO customers c) Development of the Core Sales t eam which will deal with the details of sales as well as the financial aspects of all customers d) Development of Customer Service Team to face customers and provide the necessary customer support e) Development of a central database to hold complete records of all the sales made via all the channels. This will include both retail as well as the direct channels. f) Finally, to implement an Information System and to integrate the four function groups, i.e. enterprise team, core sales, core technical team and the customer support teams. Project Scope: The project has a limited scope and it caters to the European markets. The system will be implemented in the Huanghe UK office. Constraints and Assumptions: There are two main assumptions and constraints in this project. Firstly, it is assumed that all the sales information from the retailers can be got and integrated to the information system on a daily basis. Secondly, it is assumed that the company will be willing to invest in the tec hnical development of the information systems. Outline Business Case: Huanghe TechnologyÃ has being receiving a number of complaints from the customers relating issues relating to the equipments not working from SOHO customers and also a number of calls being lost between the call centre and the sales teams. Also the SOHO customers have faced lack of technical support from the company. The company is currently being run in three separate parts which are each managed by different people and all act independently as separate units and with different operations culture. The main issue of the business clearly is a lack of integration among the three parts of the business. Here due to the lack of integration, the impact has been on the customers and the service provided to the customers. CRM Systems Ã¢â¬â Project Initiation Project Name: Date: Release: Draft/Final Author: Owner: Client: Document Number: Purpose: The Project Initiation document provides a clear view of the direction of the project as well as a clear view of the roles of the various individuals in the project. This helps in developing a strong and firm foundation for the proposal before the company can make any further commitments on the project. It also helps provide the users and interested parties with a clear and detailed view of what the project is about and also how the project will be managed.
Monday, July 22, 2019
Macbeth, Macduff and the Witches Essay Macduff has just told me that he was not born naturally; he actually turned to me and said Macduff was from his mothers womb untimely ripped. For me, that is the end, I think about the witchs predictions. Then, I think back to when it all started. We were on our way home, Banquo and I when we meet the witches who told us that I would be Thane of Glamis, well I knew that already. Then they told me that I would be Thane of Cawdor, This surprised me as the Thane of Cawdor was very well and living. Then the final witch said to me All hail Macbeth that shalt be king hereafter. When I heard this I wanted to here more but they wouldnt speak to me. Then my friend Banquo asked them about him, what will happen to him? They said to Banquo that he will be lesser than Macbeth but greater. Which at first didnt make sense but then it came to me that he would not be king but his children would succeed to the throne. I turned to question them and suddenly they disappeared. I saw Ross riding towards us he told us that the king has heard of our success against the Norwegians. Then he said that the Thane of Cawdor has been relieved from his command and the king has given me the job of being Thane of Cawdor. I couldnt believe it the witches were right, their predictions came true and if that prediction came true than so should the rest. I wrote a letter to my wife telling her about the witches and their predictions I also told her that I had become the Thane of Cawdor. When I got home my wife told me that the king will be coming to stay at our castle for the night. I was really surprised about this visit and then my wife explained the plans she made. It was all too difficult as Duncan had been really good to me; he made me Thane of Cawdor which was very generous. But now I have to kill him, I was afraid but my wife convinced me that when it is done everything would be fine. Her plan was to drug the kings personal bodyguards, wait till they fall asleep, then steal their daggers and use them to murder Duncan. After I kill Duncan I was to leave the bloody daggers in the hands of the bodyguards. I really didnt want to do this but I couldnt let my wife down. So went up to Duncans room and I saw a dagger before my eyes, I tried to grab it but my hand just went through it. It started floating towards Duncans room and then it just disappeared. I picked up the sleeping guards daggers and walked into Duncans chambers. When it was done I came out of Duncans chambers and went to my wife who was ringing the bell gently. She saw me with the daggers dripping in blood and she said to me why did I bring the daggers with you, you was supposed to leave them with the guards I told her I was afraid and I just ran out of the room and forgot everything. She took the daggers away from me and put them in the hands of the guards. Then I heard a very loud knocking, I looked at my hands and they were stained red so I quickly ran to the well and washed them, my wife cane back and her hands were also red so she washed them as well. The knocking continued so we got changed and laid in bed. The porter opened the door. It was Macduff and Lennox, who came in ringing the bell so that everyone would wake up. I went to them and showed them to Duncans room. Everyone was shocked at what they saw, and I had to play along too. Malcolm and Dolabain Duncans two sons fled. One went to England and the other to Ireland. This was good because it makes everyone suspicious of them. Now they were gone, I was crowned king, but I still had one more problem. Banquo was with me when the witches told us of their predictions. He was also there when Ross told me the king has given me the job of being Thame of Cawdor, so then Banquo would be suspicious of me because one of the witches predictions was that I would be king, and now that the king is dead, he will accuse me of killing him. I had killed once, and it seemed easy to kill again. I arranged for Banquo, my friend, to be killed. I hired these hit men. I was not sure how it would all turn out. I told the hit men to make sure they kill Fleance, his son as well because I didnt want any of his children to reign as well. I prepared a banquet for all my friends. Lords and nobleman we all sat around the table and began to eat: You know your own degrees, sit down. At first it was going all quite well, me and my wife was enjoying ourselves which was a relief from thinking about Duncan and what happened in the past. Then just as it was getting better, I spotted one of the hit men that I had hired earlier. I went to him and made sure no one could see or hear us. I asked him is he dispatched? He replied with good news my lord, his throat is cut; that I did for him. I asked him what he had done with Fleance. He hung his head and said that he had escaped. I was furious I knew the nightmares would come back to me. I returned to my seat. Then Ross asked me to sit at his table, but I told him it was full. He said there was a free seat next to him. I looked at the seat next to him and saw the ghost of Banquo looking at me. I began to panic, but my wife Lady Macbeth said to everyone that I was getting into a fit and that they should leave now. When they had gone, she calmed me down saying its just the very painting of my fear. After that day I felt strange, different, uneasy, so I went back to the witches because I was so worried. When I got there they were all around a black cauldron, they said to me that they will summon their master the Apparitions. I looked into the cauldron I saw the first apparition an armed head. It said beware Macduff, beware the Thane of fife. I thought hmm well Macduff wont be a problem I can just have him killed like Banquo. The second apparition appeared which was a bloody child it said Be bloody, bold and resolute, laugh to scorn the power of man, for none of woman shall harm Macbeth. Ha! I was impressed with this, everyman and woman is born from a woman so no one can harm me. The next apparition appeared it was a child crowned, with a tree in his hand. Be loin-mettled, proud and take no care that chafes, who frets, or where conspirers are, Macbeth shall never vanquish be, until Great Birnam wood to high Dunsinane hill shall come against him. Well to me this was just wrong how can a wood move all the way up Dunsinane hill? I went home feeling very confident and the very next day I found out that Macduff had gone to England to get an army together lead by Malcom. I told my mercenaries to go to his castle and kill everyone and everything in there. Mean while when all this was going on my wife had been sleepwalking and the lady-in had called in a doctor to observe her actions. He watched her while she was sleepwalking. My wife was carrying out the actions we did when we murdered Duncan! So now the doctor and the lady-in knew about us. I noticed all my friends had left me and gone to England with Malcom, even Ross had left me and I knew he was going to tell Macduff that I had killed his family. I didnt care actually no born of a man could harm me. I bet Macduff was furious but I had nothing to fear. So as I was getting ready to fight Macduff and Malcom I still felt safe about it all because of what the apparitions told me. I knew my wife had died somehow she should have died hereafter I felt cold about everything except defeating Macduff. A messenger came later saying that Birnam wood was moving Liar and Slave I said to him but he begged me to take a look, so I did and realized what the apparitions were talking about. Malcoms army was using the branches and wood as camouflage. When everyone found out that Macduff was coming they all ran away those cowards. A few English soldiers came to me and tried to attack me but they were no problem, I walked outside the castle full of confidence and pride. I faced Macduff and said to him I bear a charmed life, which must not yield to any of woman born. Then thats when he told me that he was born untimely ripped. Looking back now I see where it had gone all wrong, but when I think about the future, me kneeling before Malcoms feet I couldnt let it happen. I raised my sword and attempted to kill Malcom but Macduff got in the way trying to defend him, I fought as hard as I could but he was just too fast. I felt something cold and sharp go through my chest, my sword fell from my hand and then I saw a blur in front of me soon I could see nothing everything had just gone black.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Translation And Interpretation Introduction The world has become like a global village as the systems of communication and information technology are developing and becoming more sophisticated .In the process of such rapid exchange of information and for the purpose of improving cultural contacts, one thing is inevitable, and that is translating. This is why there is need for competent translators who not only posses language proficiency but also general knowledge of the source culture and the intricate meanings of the many cultural references that may be of significance in one culture and not in another. Today many idiomatic expressions are found in the business domain. Examples such as: The economy went into a free fall, Obama is seeking to stake out and the solution will cut both ways are all found in various articles in Newsweek (a reputable magazine, widely and internationally distributed around the world and officially translated into Arabic.)One common characteristic associated with idioms used in the business and/or an y other domain is that their meaning can not be inferred from the individual words that constitute them. Although idioms have been connected to informal language and tabloid newspapers, however there is much evidence in the Bank of English that states they are also commonly used in magazines and journals where writers seek to give their articles a more vivid and effective effect on the reader Minugh (2000).It is also stated in the same source that most politicians and journalists use idioms as briefer way to express and convey opinions and ready made evaluations. Translation students in general and specifically the ones who major in Business Translation are assumed to have general knowledge of all language intricacies. For this, knowledge of idiomatic expressions, which constitute today an integral part of the language used in business conferences, debates and meetings, in addition to their use in a variation of magazine and newspaper articles of which there is a great chance that t hey may be asked to translate, is one of the essential requirements of the competent translator. Statement of the problem In principal translating from one language into another is not an easy task, but when the translation occurs between two distinct languages such as English and Arabic the task is aggravated. One of the more prominent translation problems occurs when the translator encounters idioms or culturally bound expressions. Idioms pose a great challenge for translation students as they are bound to the cultural identities and history of any nation; therefore it is assumed that if such culturally bound expressions were introduced to the students through authentic contexts relevant to their field of speciality and considered as an integral part of their educational program, the students will be given insight into the culture, history ,traditions ,values and morals reflected through the language of that nation.While many researches investigated the difficulties linked to the translation of idiomatic expressions by non-native speakers, the majority of these researches and studies have focused, gen erally, on the different theories of idiom comprehension Bortfeld (1998/2002.), and Bortfeld Brennan (1997). There exists ,however, a small body of academic literature which focuses on the study of idiomatic expressions occurring in the business domain ,specifically in journalism,(magazines and newspapers)and their effects and implications on both readers and learners Ulland(1997) .This research aims to contribute to the afore mentioned literature by making a case for the translation of idioms, occurring in business magazine articles, by MA students in their final academic semester at the Academy Of Post Graduate studies/Tripoli to find out what strategies and techniques they are using in contrast with the translation strategies they were taught in their study of translation and with reference to Bakers(1992)strategies .The research also aims at identifying the problems they encounter in the process of translating idioms from English to Arabic. Due to time and space limitation it is not possible to collect all the used idioms and the study will focus on one specific magazine (Newsweek). Significance of the study The translation section in the Academy of Postgraduate Studies has two majors: Translation Interpreting and Business Translation. The latter was introduced three years ago .Translation students majoring in the business translation MA programme are likely to work as translators in companies, agencies, media or as teachers. In fact they may already be in one of the aforesaid posts. They may be asked to translate or even interpret in a meeting where the lingua franca is English (SL) and the (TL) is Arabic, and as mentioned before idioms today are used and can be encountered in a wide range of texts ranging from economic ,financial, administrative, political ,advertising and many others .A competent translator has to have knowledge of all the intricate features of the language they are translating from as well as being competent in their own native language to be able to convey the meaning accurately. This study aims at shedding the light on the importance of learning and comprehension o f idiomatic expressions in the field of business, it will also serve a dual purpose of testing the implementation of previously taught translation strategies to the translation of business idioms as well as offering reference material for further relevant researches to be used as a good ground for their knowledge reservoir. Research questions The researcher would like to address the following questions throughout the process of the study: Are students familiar with the idiomatic expressions encountered in the business field? Which strategies are used by MA students in the translation of idioms with reference to Bakers strategies? To what extent do the students find the available reference tools (dictionaries/internet) helpful and/or useful? Research Hypotheses The researcher hypothesizes the following: H1-MA students in their final semester at the Academy of Postgraduate Studies are not familiar with business idiomatic expressions; therefore, they will not produce accurate translations. H2-Omission or literal translation will most likely be used in the translation of the idioms. H3-The available reference tools are insufficient in aiding the students with their translations. Research Objectives : Expounding on the objectives of using idioms in various business field domains to enhance teachers and students awareness of the importance of teaching and learning such expressions as an integral part of language education and translators language proficiency. Evaluating the implementation of the strategies taught to the students during the course of their MA studies specifically referring to Bakers strategy in order to identify students problems in the application of translation strategies and consequently find solutions and suggest recommendations. Since business translation is a new domain for MA students this research may pave the way for further investigations in the area of idiomatic expressions, for example a comparative study of the use of idioms. in Arabic versus English language may be conducted. Methodology: Multi-word combinations are so numerous in the English language; they are characterized by carrying meanings that can not easily be deduced from knowledge of normal intrinsic meanings of words. General knowledge and competency in L2 would still not help a nonnative speaker to elicit the meaning of word combinations such as: fall flat, thin on the ground or lay something at somebodys door; because the individual words do not give a clear cue as to the intended meaning. To the best of my knowledge, a great number of researchers and previous studies tackled the problem of translating idiomatic expressions in general English, but not in specialized fields such as the use of idioms in the business field; business documents, newspapers, magazine articles.etc. It is worth noting that over the years idioms have entered the English language from the world of sports, for example slam dunk: great success, to classical literature, the goose that laid the golden egg and science technology;you ne ed to recharge your batteries and, they are on the same wave length. Today many idiomatic expressions are found in the business domain, for example: to throw money at a problem, call the shots, do a roaring trade and join the rat race. My objectives regarding this topic is twofold .First, to prove that today such idiomatic expressions constitute a high proportion in well reputed newspapers(Guardian) and magazines(Newsweek),and occur in major domains such as : politics ,economics ,art Hans(2007)Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦ unlike what Baker(1992) states English uses idioms in many types of text,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦..Their use in quality press news reports is limited ,Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¦.in English advertisement, promotional material, and in the tabloid press Nippold(1991)emphasizes the challenges involved in the learning and mastering of idioms and states that nevertheless every learner must be prepared to meet the challenge simply because idioms occur so frequently in the spoken and written English Second, to discuss the role of context in idiom comprehension and the strategies used by Libyan novice translators in translating business idioms with reference to Bakers strategies(1992) in order to elicit the most applicable technique .Fina lly, concluding by making suggestions about teaching and learning strategies to encounter the problems related to translating idiomatic expressions (focusing on business idioms).I have used data from Newsweek magazine, and I also conducted an experiment test including 20 business idioms which were given to final semester masters students at the Academy of Graduate Studies. The students were divided into two groups A/B; the first group was given idioms in context and the second group was given the idioms as single unit expressions. They were all asked to translate the idioms and then answer four questions at the end. The questions were related to three sub-hypotheses:1-most of the students are not familiar with business idioms.2- Students have to be competent in both L1 and L2 to be able to benefit from bilingual dictionaries.3-Novice translators realize that it is important for them to learn and be trained to comprehend idioms because of the functional role they play in language com munication. As mentioned earlier, the whole world is undergoing complex changes in different areas such as technology and education. These changes necessarily have an important bearing on systems of higher education, including translator training programs.
The Triad Of Impairments In Asd Psychology Essay Having aspirations to become an educational psychologist, I have always held a strong interest in clinical conditions such as Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and how they can affect a persons behaviours. This interest has been further fuelled by my nephew having been recently diagnosed with high functioning ASD. Whilst I am familiar with the behavioural aspects of this disorder I lack knowledge on the neurological explanations. I wish to change this to increase my understanding of ASD in order to be better equipped to offer my nephew and others with ASD the best possible support. Introduction The complexity of Autistic Spectrum Disorders is partially due to the fact that, until recently, there were no clear biological functions which corresponded with the syndrome. Scientific developments in brain imaging in recent years, however, have enabled psychologists to begin to research ASD from a neurological perspective, meaning that the symptoms of ASD are beginning to be understood more clearly as an expression of a neural disorder (Just et al, 2012). According to the DSM-IV a person can be diagnosed with ASD when they exhibit symptoms under the following three primary criteria: Qualitative impairment in social interaction Qualitative impairment in communication Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. The above symptoms are often referred to as a triad of impairments. However, in the proposed DSM-V there is the possibility that the social and communication impairments will be combined and that in the future the definition will form a dyad of impairments instead (Pina-Camacho et al, 2011) . At the time of writing, however, a triad of impairments still exists. This essay is focusing not on the general differences between the brains of typically developing (TD) humans and humans with ASD, but on the neurological explanations for the most prominent behavioural symptoms of ASD. Accordingly the triad of impairments will be taken, one by one, and possible neurological explanations will be explored. Qualitative impairment in social interaction Much of the neurological research on ASD focuses on this impairment following the pattern of behavioural research on ASD. Indeed, one of the most prominent theories of ASD, the Theory of Mind (Baron-Cohen, 1985), focuses almost entirely on the social deficits, arguing that people with ASD struggle with mentalising; they lack social insight and are unable to perceive the world from another persons viewpoint. From a neurological standing, however, it is not enough to assume that people with ASD do not have a Theory of Mind; instead, we must understand biologically why this may be so. Brothers (1990) conducted a variety of studies, both with humans and other primates, and proposed that primates alone have social cognition they are able to perceive psychological facts about others. Through the examination of evolutionary studies, as well as the study of clinical conditions which can affect social cognition, Brothers proposed a neural network of regions in the brain, which, combined create the social brain: Superior temporal sulcus (STS) plays an important role in social perception and is implicated in the processing of many types of sensory information which are relevant to social interaction, e.g. selective sensitivity to vocal and speech sounds rather than to non-vocal sounds and the processing of the motions of hands, face, eyes, and body, especially if the motions relate to emotion in some way (Neuhaus et al, 2010). Fusiform gyrus (FG) region is thought to display a selective response to human faces and is often referred to as the fusiform face area (FFA) (Neuhaus et al, 2010). Prefrontal cortex (PFC) a subdivision of the PFC is the ventromedial PFC, a region including the orbital frontal cortex and the ventral part of the anterior cingulate cortex areas implicated in motivation, reward, and emotion processing, and planning for the future. This region also has extensive connections with the amygdala (Neuhaus et al, 2010). Amygdala involved in processing emotions, empathy, perspective taking and social judgements (Neuhaus et al, 2010). Figure A A diagram of the regions of the brain thought to comprise the social brain. Data retrieved from: http://www.jaynejubb.com/june2012article.htm It seems highly probable that damage to a region in the social brain is likely to cause some visible social deficit. Thus, ASD may be explained, to a certain extent, through abnormalities in these regions when compared to TD humans. Various studies support this idea; the amygdala theory of autism, for example, proposes that there is an amygdala impairment in people with autism, which can help to explain the deficits in their social behaviour (Baron-Cohen, 2000). Given that the amygdala is strongly associated with emotion along with other social functions, irregularity in this region could well contribute to the lack of social insight so often noted in people with ASD. In an earlier study, Baron-Cohen et al (1999) conducted an fMRI study comparing TD subjects with patients with high-functioning ASD or Asperger Syndrome (AS) on a mentalising task whereby participants were asked to judge from a photograph of another persons eyes what emotion that person was feeling. They found that when TD participants were attributing emotional states to the photographs, there was increased activation in their STGs and amygdalas areas associated with social perception and emotion. The ASD and AS group, however, did not show increased activation in the amygdala. Other research suggested that as well as decreased amygdala activity, people with ASD tend to process faces differently to TD people, using the right inferior temporal gyri (ITG) an area more commonly associated with processing objects, rather than the FFA (Schultz et al, 2000). Research by Pierce et al (2001) also found that there was either weak or no activity in the FFA and the amygdala in response to the human face in autistic patients but found no evidence to suggest that they used the ITG as an alternative. The differences in the results of Pierce and Schultz may be due to their samples, with Schultz using a sample including participants with autism and AS and Pierce using a sample only of participants with autism. Caution is urged when placing too much emphasis on the FGs association with faces as previous research has suggested that this region may not be face specific but may be activated when objects increase in familiarity (Gauthier et al, 1999). Fletcher et al (1995) used PET scans to compare brain activity in normal volunteers when reading Theory of Mind stories, physical stories and unlinked sentences. When activity during the Theory of Mind stories was compared with the others, the authors discovered significant activation in the left side of the medial frontal gyrus and in the posterior cingulate cortex regions in the prefrontal cortex suggesting that these regions are specifically activated when a person is mentalising. Furthermore, Castelli et al (2002) used PET scans on ten able adults with ASD or Asperger Syndrome (AS) whilst they watched a variety of animated sequences, and were asked to attribute mental states to the animations based upon what they had seen. The TD group showed increased activation in their medial prefrontal cortex, superior temporal sulcus and temporal poles, areas associated with social cognition, as described above. The autism group, however, showed less activation than the normal group in all of these regions. Qualitative impairments in communication Symptoms in this impairment range from a total lack of development of spoken language, to a person having adequate speech but being unable to use it in conversation with others, to stereotyped and repetitive use of language (DSM-IV) making it difficult to explain the impairment as a whole. There is also less literature in general on trying to explain the communication deficit in ASD than there is on trying to explain the social deficit. This may be because aspects of the communication deficit are not applicable to people with AS or high-functioning ASD whereas the social deficit is central to all ASDs. Within the left hemisphere of the brain are two areas that govern the understanding and production of speech: Brocas area and Wernickes area. Brocas area is in the frontal lobe and is primarily involved in the production of speech; Wernickes area is in the temporal lobe and is mainly involved with speech comprehension (Passer et al, 2009). Also in the left hemisphere of the brain is the primary auditory cortex an area associated with hearing and thus also largely involved in language production and comprehension (Passer et al, 2009). One possible explanation for a lack of language development is therefore likely to involve damage or irregularities in the left hemisphere of the brain and more specifically in the above areas. Boddaert et al (2004) used PET scans to compare the brain activity of eleven autistic children with six non-autistic mentally retarded children while they were listening to speech-like sounds. They found that there was less activation in speech-related areas, including Wernickes area, in autistic children. In previous work with autistic adults (Boddaert et al, 2004) they had found abnormal right frontotemporal activity but this was not found with the children. Research by Eyler et al (2012) measured the brain activity of forty toddlers with ASD and 40 TD toddlers during the presentation of a bedtime story. Their results showed that a region of the left STG, an area which includes both Brocas and Wernickes area, was significantly less responsive to speech stimuli in the group with ASD than in t he TD group. The TD toddlers showed dominance in the left hemisphere of the brain, as one might expect, given the association between the left hemisphere and language. Contrary to the Boddaert et al study, Eyler et al did find that toddlers with ASD however displayed stronger activation on the right anterior portion of the STG rather than the left. The differences in the results of the groups may be that the sample in the Boddaert et al study was significantly smaller than the sample used by Eyler et al, with only 11 autistic participants compared to 40. Eyler et al propose that the right STG may be trying to compensate for the incompetent processing of the left STG but that by doing so the development of social communication and language abilities is being lost, thus providing an explanation for not only language delay but also ineffective communication in people with ASD. Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped patterns of behaviour, interest and activities There are very few neurological studies focusing on this aspect of ASD. An fMRI study by Shafritz et al (2008) on repetitive behaviour in ASD showed that the severity of restricted, repetitive behaviours was negatively correlated with activation in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and posterior parietal regions areas associated with attention, motivation and error detection (Neuhaus et al. 2010). Research by Thakkar et al (2008) supports this finding. Through an experiment on response monitoring they found functional and structural abnormalities in the ACC in ASD participants and suggested that this may cause rigid and repetitive, rather than responsive and flexible behaviour. As the cerebellum is concerned primarily with muscular movement co-ordination but also plays a role in learning and memory (Passer et al, 2009), Pierce and Courchesne (2001) examined the possibility of a link between cerebellar abnormality and exploration in autism. They held an experiment where 14 autistic chi ldren and 14 TD children were in a large room with several exploration containers and encouraged to play. The results showed that children with autism spent significantly less time in active exploration and were more likely to engage in repetitive movements than TD children. They found that the more abnormal the cerebellar vermis, an area in the medial cerebellum (Passer et al, 2009) the less time spent in exploring a new environment. Conclusion Much more literature exists examining the neurological explanations of social impairments in ASD than in the other two impairments. A vast amount of evidence exists associating the social deficits in ASD with irregularities in various regions of the social brain; the superior temporal sulcus, the fusiform gyrus, the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala. A lack of activity in the left hemisphere of the brain is likely to contribute to the communication impairment visible in AS. There is very little literature on the restricted behaviour impairment but recent work has proposed a possible association between cerebellar abnormality and exploration and between the ACC and repetitive behaviour. Further work is needed in all three areas ideally work could be conducted that could help to explain all three impairments rather than focusing on a single one.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Physics is one of the key elements of any computer game or animation. This is especially true, when it comes to 3D environments. Physics applies to every aspect of the real world, from how objects act on each other through obvious collisions down to the more in depth conservation of energies and momentums. These same concepts apply to Computer Generated Environments (CGE). 3D CGEs always require a few key laws to be followed in order for them to look at least somewhat realistic. Without at least implementing these simple physics concepts, the interaction of polygons will look unrealistic. Polygons can easily be treated as simple masses, and thus, applying physic law to them is simple. One of the most important laws that must be followed is the Law of gravity. Without gravity, objects will either simply float about aimlessly. Making objects stick to the ground isn't a solution, or falling objects would hit the ground instantaneously, and it would look pretty terrible. The Laws of gravity must be followed. Second, the three laws of Newton must be followed. They describe the way that forces act on objects. The 3 laws simplified are as follows: 1. Velocity remains constant unless a force acts on the object. 2. Sum of the forces equals the product of the mass and its acceleration. 3. For every action, there is an equal reaction, just opposite in direction. Third, are the conservations. This includes Conservation of Momentum, Conservation of Energy, and Conservation of Torque. This page wont get into the latter, since it isn't really necessary for CGEs. To get more information about any of these Physics concepts and laws and how they apply to 3D CGEs, use the menu to browse the rest of the site. Have Fun! Don't hurt yourself, and keep an eye out for an easter egg. Gravity is one of those things that simply has to exist. A CGE that lacks gravity will more than likely have some other form of keeping objects together and on a plane, such as simply making all the objects stick to the ground. This isn't the best way to go about doing this. Gravity would create a much more realistic emulation of reality. Sure, objects simply tied to the ground can work, but if these objects were to fall, then the fall would have to be pre-rendered, or sequenced. A simple change in the height from which an object falls, and this wouldn't look realistic. The object would look as if fell too quickly, or the environment would be limited to set height increases. Physics in Computer Games :: Physics video games computer Physics is one of the key elements of any computer game or animation. This is especially true, when it comes to 3D environments. Physics applies to every aspect of the real world, from how objects act on each other through obvious collisions down to the more in depth conservation of energies and momentums. These same concepts apply to Computer Generated Environments (CGE). 3D CGEs always require a few key laws to be followed in order for them to look at least somewhat realistic. Without at least implementing these simple physics concepts, the interaction of polygons will look unrealistic. Polygons can easily be treated as simple masses, and thus, applying physic law to them is simple. One of the most important laws that must be followed is the Law of gravity. Without gravity, objects will either simply float about aimlessly. Making objects stick to the ground isn't a solution, or falling objects would hit the ground instantaneously, and it would look pretty terrible. The Laws of gravity must be followed. Second, the three laws of Newton must be followed. They describe the way that forces act on objects. The 3 laws simplified are as follows: 1. Velocity remains constant unless a force acts on the object. 2. Sum of the forces equals the product of the mass and its acceleration. 3. For every action, there is an equal reaction, just opposite in direction. Third, are the conservations. This includes Conservation of Momentum, Conservation of Energy, and Conservation of Torque. This page wont get into the latter, since it isn't really necessary for CGEs. To get more information about any of these Physics concepts and laws and how they apply to 3D CGEs, use the menu to browse the rest of the site. Have Fun! Don't hurt yourself, and keep an eye out for an easter egg. Gravity is one of those things that simply has to exist. A CGE that lacks gravity will more than likely have some other form of keeping objects together and on a plane, such as simply making all the objects stick to the ground. This isn't the best way to go about doing this. Gravity would create a much more realistic emulation of reality. Sure, objects simply tied to the ground can work, but if these objects were to fall, then the fall would have to be pre-rendered, or sequenced. A simple change in the height from which an object falls, and this wouldn't look realistic. The object would look as if fell too quickly, or the environment would be limited to set height increases.
Friday, July 19, 2019
Kmart Past Struggles Management is a key to success, and Kmart needs proper management to help create a positive image that attracts more customers. KmartÃ¢â¬â¢s disorderly management and bankruptcy caused many customers to shop with other retailers. According to Carr, Wal-Mart and Kmart were the same size in 1990. Since then, Kmart has grown far slower than its rival or the industry. Once one of the largest discount retailers, Kmart filed for the biggest Chapter 11 bankruptcy for discount retailing in the United States (2002). Struggling to find the right type of management has been one of KmartÃ¢â¬â¢s problems that ultimately helped lead the company to its downfall. Kmart is constantly changing CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s, and thus focuses. Kmart has had four different CEOÃ¢â¬â¢s since 2000, all with different management objectives. Youdath illustrates some of KmartÃ¢â¬â¢s management changes, Charles Conway wanted to turn Kmart into an Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday low price destination,Ã¢â¬ making Wal-Mart Stores a direct competitor. Conaway cut back on advertising and the results were not profitable. After an unprofitable holiday season in 2001 the company filed bankruptcy. In 2002, James Adamson hoped to improve customer service and restock the shelves within the Kmart Stores. While Kmart was taking time to recover from filing Chapter 11, its rivals like Wal-Mart and Target were stealing its customers. When Kmart was focusing on random in-store discounts, Wal-Mart and Target were pitching low prices, broad inventories, hip products, and a pleasant shopping experience (2002). Jalexson states that in 2003 Edward Lambert rescued Kmart from bankruptcy. Lambert wanted to attract customerÃ¢â¬â¢s back, but the closing of 28% of Kmarts over the last two years hurts the chains ability to attract customers and forced the remaining stores to pay a higher portion of advertising costs. Then, in January of 2003 CEO Julian Day said that when a company exits bankruptcy it should emphasize the exclusive brands like; Joe Boxer, Sesame Street and of course Martha Stewart (2003). As mentioned by Karush, starting in October of 2004 Aylwin Lewis was named CEO of Kmart and will be involved in merging Kmart with Sears (2005). With inconsistent management and objectives, Kmart has been struggling to create concrete guidelines necessary to improve store performance. Effects of Past Struggles on Local Stores KmartÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation of poor manage... ...of KmartÃ¢â¬â¢s financial problems and unclear marketing strategy local stores have also suffered. Kmart struggles to change these negative images, and create a positive image to differentiate itself form its competitors. Even though Kmart has had a struggling past, changes can be made by management to improve stores status and attract customers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Actions such as increasing advertising, improving the store environment, and increasing the availability of quality merchandise must be taken to improve store performance. To make consumers more aware of KmartÃ¢â¬â¢s merchandise more promotions and advertisement is essential. Television, radio, newspaper, and promotional ads should be shown to the general public to spark interest. Stores need to improve appearance and organization and also offer a wider range of quality merchandise. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã KmartÃ¢â¬â¢s stores have prime real estate and could be improved by new marketing and management methods to make shopping with Kmart a more pleasant experience. Kmart must improve customer satisfaction, and differentiate itself from its competitors. The future is now and in order to stand out changes must be made.